Venom apparatus of a rattlesnake
Tooth mark pattern

Snakes bite either to capture prey or as a defense. In venomous species, the discharge of venom is voluntary. Venom is stored in glands on either side of the head behind the eyes, and is expelled through muscular action. The venom passes through two ducts leading to hollow fangs located in the forward portion of the upper jaw (maxilla). Each fang possesses a small opening near the tip through which the venom is injected into the site of the bite (Fig. 1). This action is similar to forcing drops of fluid through a hypodermic syringe and needle.

Because injection of venom is voluntary, venomous snakes may occasionally deliver a "dry" bite in which no venom is injected. This can occur when snakes produce a superficial bite or are panicked. About one in five bites to humans from venomous snakes are in this category. At other times only a specific amount of venom is injected. Due to the spongy nature of the glands it is nearly impossible for a snake to expel all of its venom. When most of the venom is expelled from the glands, between 15 and 20 days are required for the secretory tissue to refill the glands. However, secretion appears to be rapid during the first few days, so that venomous snakes may possess dangerous quantities of venom within a day or two of its expulsion.

Bites from venomous snakes exhibit a distinctive pattern (Fig. 2). Typically only one or two fang punctures are evident on the skin, although smaller scratches or punctures may be evident from small teeth within the snake's mouth. Bites from non-venomous snakes display markings from small teeth only, typically seen in rows. Sharp, throbbing pain usually results immediately when venom is injected from the pit vipers, and will immediately indicate envenomation. However, pain is not always a symptom, even from potentially lethal bites. Bites from coral snakes may be nearly painless, or exhibit limited pain near the bite. Bites from nonvenomous snakes produce superficial pain, if any at all.

Bites from pit vipers are hemorrhagic, that is, they break down vascular tissue by enzymatic action. Upon entering the body, the venom travels through lymphatic vessels and sometimes the bloodstream, binding with the victim's tissues as it goes. This results in severe pain and swelling, and can produce secondary results such as dizziness, nausea, headache and shock. Short-term results from bites may include discoloration and eventual tissue loss. In fatal bites, death usually results from loss of blood pressure and volume through destruction of vascular tissue.

Coral snake venom is neurotoxic and effects the central nervous system. Thus, there may be little pain or swelling from the bite. However, effects on the nervous system can cause the arrest of involuntary muscle activity that normally controls breathing and heartbeat. Envenomation may cause symptoms of drowsiness or anxiety. It is important to note that subtle symptoms from coral snake bite may not be apparent for several hours.

Individuals may react differently to venomous snake bites, just as some people are more susceptible to bee stings than others. Successive bites may initiate some immunity which can reduce the negative impact of bites. However, successive bites often increase sensitivity to venom, producing the opposite effect -- people who have experienced two or three previous bites may go into shock if subsequently bitten.

Snakebite is a rare occurrence, even among people who spend a great deal of time outdoors.  Prior to the mid-1960s, approximately one in 10,000 people were bitten by venomous snakes each year in Louisiana.  The incidence of snakebite to Louisiana citizens is now likely reduced.  The people at greatest risk of being bitten are those who handle snakes, including individuals who keep venomous snakes as pets, or are in the habit of killing or skinning venomous snakes. Such individuals account for roughly 40% of venomous snake bites.   Surprisingly, the incidence of snakebite for children playing outdoors is relatively low.  Fatality from snake bites has become a rare occurrence: about one in 600 reported bites are fatal following medical treatment, and in some species such as the Copperhead, the fatality rate is near zero.  The fatality rate without medical treatment is about one in 40.


The first step in snakebite treatment is to avoid panic and seek medical attention.  The very low death rate from snakebites should be reassuring.  Several treatments have been recommended for field first aid, but the most important step is to seek medical attention immediately.  Call local hospitals to determine which ones are prepared to treat snakebite victims.

What to do:

  1. Remain calm; snakebite is rarely fatal.
  2. Seek immediate medical attention.  Call ahead to the hospital so that emergency personnel will be ready upon your arrival.
  3. Keep the bitten body part immobilized (i.e., if a hand is bitten, suspend the arm in a sling).
  4.  Remove jewelry and clothing that may become constrictive as swelling progresses.
    The following steps are optional for rattlesnake, copperhead and cottonmouth bites only.  No first aid for coral snakes is recommended beyond steps 1-4 above.
  5. If medical attention is less than 20 minutes away, apply a wide constricting band just above the bite (use only if the bite is on a limb).  This band should be loose enough so that a finger can easily be slipped between it and the skin, and should never be tight enough to cut off circulation.
  6. If medical attention is more than 20 minutes away, and the bite is less than 10 minutes old, small incisions may be made just above the bite (in the direction of the trunk).  These should be no more than 3/8 inch long and 1/8 inch deep.  Fluid may be sucked from the bite and incisions during the next half-hour.  Fluid should never be sucked orally if open sores are present on or in the mouth.  Incisions are ineffective if the bite is over 15 minutes old, as the venom will have dispersed within the lymphatic system.

What not to do:

  • Never apply ice packs.
  • Never apply a tourniquet that restricts blood circulation. 
  • Never attempt to excise the wound or "cut-out" the venom. 
  • Never allow the victim to drink alcohol or take aspirin or other blood thinners. 
  • Never apply electric shock to the bitten area. 
  • Never give antivenin in the field -- antivenin is, itself, a toxin that may cause anaphylactic shock.


  Snake bite can be avoided in a number of ways:

  1. Be cautious about where hands and feet are placed.  Do not put hands in holes or under objects (i.e., lumber, scrap metal, overturned boats) without first being sure that a snake is not located underneath.
  2. Do not lay your head down or sit down in vegetation or other situations where there may be any doubt about the presence of venomous snakes.
  3. Wear proper foot gear such as hightop leather boots when walking through dense vegetation.
  4. Do not attempt to capture, tease, handle or keep venomous snakes.  Involuntary nervous activity may allow snakes to bite for up to an hour after they have been ?killed.?
  5. Camp away from swamps, stream banks, brush piles, tall vegetation, trash and other areas likely to be inhabited by venomous snakes.
  6. Do not walk barefoot at night.

Snakes of Louisiana

This web site is intended to provide information to the public concerning snakes native to Louisiana. Much of the content has been taken from Snakes of Louisiana by Jeff Boundy. This book provides a more detailed analysis of the subject and is available from the Office of the Louisiana Conservationist

For more informtion contact Jeff Boundy jboundy@wlf.la.gov


Snakes are a fascinating part of Louisiana's natural heritage, but are also a source of much worry and fear among Louisiana residents and visitors. Most of Louisiana's snakes are harmless, and many are beneficial as predators of insects and rodents, as a source of income for reptile collectors, and as a necessary component of the food chain or "balance of nature." The fear of snakes in general, and particularly the venomous species, can be alleviated by understanding the behavior of snakes, and the limits of the threat they may pose to humans.

Snakes are an important component of the ecosystem as predators and as prey for other wildlife. They tend to be secretive, and when not searching for food or mates will usually remain hidden. Some snakes, particularly small ones, will feed almost daily, while large snakes may feed only once every week or two. During the mating season, usually in spring or early fall, male snakes may travel extensively to search for mates. During the warmer part of the year many snakes become nocturnal and are infrequently encountered by humans.

Snakes are not aggressive except when defending themselves. They do not pursue people, although they may swim or crawl toward someone they don't recognize as a threat. Venomous snakes are unable to strike a distance more than their body length, even less for large rattlesnakes. Thus, a distance of only five or six feet can be considered "safe" for any venomous snake in Louisiana. Despite the quickness of some snakes such as racers and coachwhips, they cannot crawl faster than five miles per hour, and can be easily outdistanced by a person.

The chief enemies of snakes are predators (hawks, owls, wild pigs, skunks, etc.), humans, automobiles, and habitat destruction. Snake populations can be maintained against any of these odds except for the latter.





























Tracking List and Fact Sheets


Natural Community Type State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet
Marine Submergent Algal Vegetation S1S2 ---
Marine Submergent Vascular Vegetation S1S2 G4?
Natural Community Type State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet
Salt Marsh S3S4 G5
Brackish Marsh S3 G4?
Intermediate Marsh S3 G4?
Coastal Mangrove-Marsh Shrubland S2 G2?
Estuarine Submergent Algal Vegetation S4 ---
Estuarine Submergent Vascular Vegetation S1S2 G4?
Vegetated Pioneer Emerging Delta S2 G3G4
Natural Community Type State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet
Submergent Algal Vegetation S4 ---
Submerged/Floating Vascular Vegetation S4 ---
Freshwater Marsh S2 G3G4
Coastal Prairie S1 G2Q
Mississippi Terrace Prairie S1 G2
Flatwoods Pond S2 G2Q
Eastern Hillside Seepage Bog S1 G2
Western Hillside Seepage Bog S1 G2G3
Interior Salt Flat S1 G1
Scrub/Shrub Swamp S4S5 G3?
Cypress-Tupelo Swamp S4 G3G5
Cypress Swamp S4 G4G5
Tupelo-Blackgum Swamp S4 G4?
Pondcypress Swamp/Blackgum Swamp S1 G3
Bottomland Hardwood Forest S4 G4G5
Overcup Oak-Water Hickory Forest S4 G4?
Hackberry-American Elm-Green Ash Forest S4 G4G5
Batture S3 G4G5
Sweetgum-Water Oak Forest S4 G4?
Live Oak Natural Levee Forest S1 G2
Wet Hardwood Flatwoods S2S3 G2G3
Macon Ridge Green Ash Pond S1 G2
Forested Seep S3 G3?
Bayhead Swamp S3 G3?
Slash Pine-Pondcypress/Hardwood Forest S2 G2?
Pine Flatwoods S3 G2G3
Eastern Longleaf Pine Savannah S1 G1
Western Acidic Longleaf Pine Savannah S2 G2G3
Western Saline Longleaf Pine Savannah S1 G1
Small Stream Forest S2 G3
Natural Community Type State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet
Coastal Dune Grassland S1 G2G3
Cook Mountain Calcareous Prairie S1 G1G2
Jackson Calcareous Prairie S1 G1
Fleming Calcareous Prairie S1 G1
Morse Clay Calcareous Prairie S1 G1G2
Saline Prairie S2 G1G2
Coastal Dune Shrub Thicket S1 G3?
Southern Mesophytic Forest S2 G1G2
Mesic Hardwood Flatwoods S2S3 G1G2?
Calcareous Forest S2 G2?Q
Hardwood Slope Forest S3 G2G3
Prairie Terrace Loess Forest S1 G2
Salt Dome Hardwood Forest S1 G1
Coastal Live Oak-Hackberry Forest S1 G2
Barrier Island Live Oak Forest S1 G1
Shortleaf Pine/Oak-Hickory Forest S1 G2G3
Mixed Hardwood-Loblolly Pine Forest S3 G3G4
Saline Oak Woodland S1 G2
Slash Pine/Post Oak S2? ---
Live Oak-Pine-Magnolia S1 G2G3
Spruce Pine-Hardwood Flatwood S1 G1G2
Eastern Upland Longleaf Pine Forest S1 G1G2
Western Upland Longleaf Pine Forest S3 G2G3
Western Xeric Sandhill Woodland S1 (SH in FL Parishes) G2G3
Cedar Woodland S1 G1
Saline Oak Woodland S1 G2
Sandstone Glade/Barren S2 G1G2
Fleming Glade S1 G1
Cave S1 GNR

Natural Communities

Natural communities are composed of groups of plant and animal species that regularly or often occur in association with each other in certain landscapes or physical environments. Nature is seldom divided into discrete units and is characteristically composed of a continuous mosaic of natural communities. The factors that help to define a particular community (i.e. - associated vegetation, soil, substrate, hydrology, topography, climate, fire history) usually exist along gradients, and therefore every occurrence of a natural community will be unique in some way. In developing our classification of the Natural Communities of Louisiana, levels of distinctiveness are defined according to the physical and biotic factors that occur repetitively at various locations.

A system for classifying natural communities is a prerequisite for an inventory of a region's natural resources. Both the classification system and inventory are essential for a complete understanding of the natural resources of that region, and also provide the framework for determining the area's protection priorities and research needs. Protecting natural communities preserves the ecological functions of the area while also providing the added benefit of safeguarding both the rare and common species occurring within that community type.

Natural community data for this classification was initially gathered from secondary sources such as previously existing inventories, scientific literature, and consultation with experts in the field. The resulting classification was then refined through data collected from scores of field surveys conducted throughout Louisiana since 1984 by LNHP staff. While this database is quite extensive, there are still many natural areas in Louisiana that have not been surveyed. New community records are continuously being added to the database, and current records are updated as new information becomes available. Therefore, our natural community classification is a dynamic system and individual categories may be added, preexisting ones may be subdivided or merged, or deletions may occur as additional information comes to light, and updated approximations will be periodically produced.

In the Natural Heritage methodology, classification of natural communities is followed by a continuous inventory for exemplary occurrences of each community type. The communities are prioritized through a ranking system, and strategies for protection of each particular community type are then formulated. Exemplary natural communities include all or any examples of rare types (such as LA coastal prairies) and also the highest quality examples of more common community types (such as bottomland hardwood forests). Typical exemplary forested communities have high species diversity, multiple age classes among the dominant tree species, presence of natural regeneration, standing dead snags and fallen woody debris in various stages of decomposition, an intact and fully functioning soil component, and little evidence of human disturbance.

According to LNHP's current natural community classification, Louisiana has 66 community types within the 6 ecoregions of Louisiana. Some community types are widespread across the state and while others are localized or restricted. Although much of Louisiana is still covered in native vegetation, undisturbed examples of all natural communities are rare, and many are extremely scarce. Essentially no virgin habitat remains. Threats to Louisiana communities exist from coastal erosion and associated coastal disturbance factors, urban expansion, residential and commercial development, land disturbance operations, introduction of exotic species, and many other human and some natural disturbance factors. LHNP has been a beneficial force in helping to identify areas in Louisiana that warrant protection, and through the work of the state, conservation organizations, and concerned private landowners, this has resulted in conservation of places such as the Lake Ramsey Wildlife Management Area, Copenhagen Hills, and Tunica Hills Wildlife Management Area to name a few. Forest landowners and land managers who wish to maintain and enhance the natural communities and associated species in their care can follow recommendations outlined in LNHP's Guidelines for Practicing Forest Environmental Enhancement in Louisiana. Any questions, concerns, information requests concerning LA natural communities, or comments regarding our classification system are welcomed and should be directed to:

Tracking List and Fact Sheets



Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Actinonaias ligamentina

Mucket S2 G5Q

Anodontoides radiatus

Rayed Creekshell S2 G3

Cyprogenia aberti

Western Fanshell SH G2G3Q

Ellipsaria lineolata

Butterfly S1 G4

Elliptio crassidens

Elephant-ear S3 G5

Elliptio dilatata

Spike S2S3 G5

Fusconaia ebena

Ebonyshell S3 G4G5

Lampsilis abrupta

Pink Mucket S1 G2 E

Lampsilis ornata

Southern Pocketbook S3 G5

Lampsilis satura

Sandbank Pocketbook S2 G2

Lampsilis cardium

Plain Pocketbook S1 G5

Lampsilis siliquoidea

Fatmucket S2 G5

Lasmigona complanata

White Heelsplitter S1 G5

Ligumia recta

Black Sandshell S1 G5

Margaritifera hembeli

Louisiana Pearlshell S1 G1 E T

Obovaria jacksoniana

Southern Hickorynut S1S2 G2

Obovaria olivaria

Hickorynut S1 G4

Obovaria unicolor

Alabama Hickorynut S1 G3

Pleurobema beadleianum

Mississippi Pigtoe S2 G3

Pleurobema rubrum

Pyramid Pigtoe S2 G2G3

Pleurobema riddellii

Louisiana Pigtoe S1S2 G1G2

Potamilus amphichaenus

Texas Heelsplitter SH G1G2

Potamilus capax

Fat Pocketbook S1 G1G2 E

Potamilus inflatus

Inflated Heelsplitter S1 G1G2Q T T

Ptychobranchus occidentalis

Ouachita Kidneyshell S1 G3G4

Quadrula cylindrica

Rabbitsfoot S1 G3G4 T

Quadrula metanevra

Monkeyface S1 G4

Strophitus subvexus

Southern Creekmussel S1 G3

Strophitus undulatus

Squawfoot S2 G5

Villosa vibex

Southern Rainbow S2 G5Q

Fusconaia askewi

Texas Pigtoe S3 G2G3

Glebula rotundata

Round Pearlshell S4 G4G5

Truncilla donaciformis

Fawnsfoot S3 G5

Argopectin irradians

Bay Scallop S1 G5

Atrina serrata

Sawtooth Pen Shell S1 G5

Atrina seminuda

Half-Naked Pen Shell S1 GNR
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Pleurocera canaliculata

Silty Hornsnail S2 G5

Pleurocera canaliculata

Silty Hornsnail S2 G5

Anguispira alternata

Flamed Tigersnail S1 G5
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Orconectes blacki

Calcasieu Painted Crawfish S1 G2

Orconectes hathawayi

Teche Painted Crawfish S3 G3

Orconectes maletae

Kisatchie Painted Crawfish S2 G2

Procambarus bivittatus

Ribbon Crawfish S2 G5

Procambarus jaculus

Javelin Crawfish S1 G4

Procambarus viaeviridis

Vernal Crawfish S1 G5

Procambarus elegans

A Crawfish S2 G5

Procambarus geminus

A Crawfish S2 G3G4

Procambarus shermani

Plain Brown Crawfish S2 G4

Fallicambarus dissitus

Pine Hills Crawfish S2 G4

Fallicambarus macneesei

Old Prairie Crawfish S2 G3

Fallicambarus oryktes

Flatwoods Digger S2 G4

Faxonella beyeri

Sabine Fencing Crawfish S2 G4

Faxonella creaseri

Ouachita Fencing Crawfish S2 G2

Procambarus machardyi

Caddo Chimney Crawfish S1 G1G2

Procambarus pentastylus

Calcasieu Creek Crawfish S3 G3

Procambarus penni

Pearl Blackwater Crawfish S3 G3

Procamabarus planirostris

Flatnose Crawfish S3 G4

Orconectes hobbsi

Ponchartrain Painted Crawfish S3 G4Q

Procambarus dupratzi

Southwestern Creek Crawfish S2 G5
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Dryobius sexnotatus

Six-banded Longhorn Beetle S1 GNR

Dubiraphia parva

Little Dubiraphian Riffle Beetle S1 G1G3

Nicrophorus americanus

American Burying Beetle G2G3 E E

Brachycercus flavus

Yellow Brachycercus Mayfly S2 G4

Leuctra szczytkoi

Schoolhouse Springs Leuctran Stonefly S1 G2

Chimarra holzenthali

Holzenthal's Philopotamid Caddisfly S1 G1G2

Agarodes libalis

Spring-loving Psiloneuran Caddisfly S1 G3

Cheumatopsyche morsei

Morse's Net-spinning Caddisfly S1 G1G3

Diplectrona rossi

A Net-spinning Caddisfly S1 G1

Hydroptila ouachita

A Purse Casemaker Caddisfly S1 G1G2

Pogonomyrmex badius

Florida Harvester Ant S1 G5

Pogonomyrmex comanche

Comanche Harvester Ant S2 GNR

Lestes vidua

Carolina Spreadwing SH G5

Gomphus hodgesi

Hodges Clubtail S1 G3

Ophiogomphus australis

Southern Snaketail S1 G1G2

Cordulegaster sarracenia

Pitcher Plant Spiketail S1 G1

Somatochlora margarita

Texas Emerald S2 G2

Amphinemura texana

Puebla Forestfly S3 G3

Helopicus bogaloosa

Masked Springfly S2 G3

Cicindela dorsalis venusta

Eastern Beach Tiger Beetle S3 G4T3T4

Cicindela wapleri

White Sand Tiger Beetle S3 G3G4

Cicindela blanda

Sandbar Tiger Beetle S3 G3G4

Ataenius robustus

Scarab Beetle S1 GNR

Bombus pensylvanicus

American Bumblebee S3 G3G4

Ceraclea spongillovorax

Ceraclean Caddisfly S2 G3G4

Hydroptila molsonae

Molson's Microcaddisfly S1 G2G3

Hydroptla poirrieri

Hydroptilad Caddisfly S2 G2

Callophrys irus

Frosted Elfin S3 G3

Calephelis virginiensis

Little Metalmark S4 G4

Lethe creola

Creole Pearly Eye S3 G3G4

Neonympha areolatus

Georgia Satyr S3 G3G4

Erynnis martialis

Mottled Duskywing S3 G3

Amblyscirtes aesculapias

Lace Winged Roadside Skipper S3 G3G4

Amblyscirtes alternata

Dusky Roadside Skipper S2S3 G2G3

Atrytone arogos

Arogos Skipper S1 G3

Atrytonopsis hianna

Dusted Skipper S3 G4G5

Euphyes bayensis

Bay Skipper S1 G2

Euphyes dukesi

Duke’s Skipper S3 G3

Hesperia attalus

Dotted Skipper SU G3G4

Megathymus yuccae

Yucca Giant Skipper SU G5

Lapara phaeobrachycerous

Gulf Pine Sphinx S3 G3G4

Automeris Louisiana

Louisiana Eyed Silkmoth S2 G1G3

Bagisara brouana

A Noctuid Moth S3 G3

Catocala atocala

Nutmeg Underwing S1S2 G3G4

Erynnis baptisiae

Wild Indigo Duskywing SU G5

Amblyscirtes celia

Celia's Roadside Skipper SU G4

Amblyscirtes hegon

Pepper and Salt Skipper SU G5

Euphyes pilatka

Palatka Skipper SU G3G4

Euphyes dion

Dion Skipper SU G4

Hesperia metea

Cobweb Skipper SU G4G5

Panoquina panoquinoides

Obscure Skipper SU G5

Hesperia meskei

Meske's Skipper SU G3G4

Megathymus streckeri

Strecker's Giant Skipper SU G5

Anthocharis midea

Falcate Orangetip S4 G4G5

Brephidium exile

Western Pygmy Blue SU G5

Brephidium isophthalma

Eastern Pygmy Blue SU G5

Phyciodes texana seminole

Seminole Texan Crescent SU G5

Satyrium kingi

King's Hairstreak SU G3G4

Satyrodes appalachia

Appalachian Brown SU G4
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi

Gulf Sturgeon S1 G3T2 T T

Scaphirhynchus albus

Pallid Sturgeon S1 G2 E E

Polyodon spathula

Paddlefish S4 G4

Alosa alabamae

Alabama Shad S1 G3 C

Campostoma anomalum

Central Stoneroller S2 G5

Notropis boops

Bigeye Shiner S3 G5

Notropis potteri

Chub Shiner S3 G4

Notropis sabinae

Sabine Shiner S4 G4

Phenacobius mirabilis

Suckermouth Minnow S1 G5

Cyprinella camura

Bluntface Shiner S2 G5

Cyprinella whipplei

Steelcolor Shiner S2 G5

Pteronotropis hubbsi

Bluehead Shiner S2 G3

Pteronotropis signipinnis

Flagfin Shiner S2 G5

Pteronotropis welaka

Bluenose Shiner S2 G3G4

Notropis amplamala

Longjaw Minnow S3 G5

Cycleptus elongatus

Blue Sucker S3 G3G4

Cycleptus meridionalis

Southeastern Blue Sucker S1 G3G4

Moxostoma carinatum

River Redhorse S1 G4

Noturus munitus

Frecklebelly Madtom S1 G3

Fundulus euryzonus

Broadstripe Topminnow S2 G2

Syngnathus scovelli

Gulf Pipefish S4 G5

Crystallaria asprella

Crystal Darter S2 G3

Ammocrypta clara

Western Sand Darter S2 G3

Etheostoma caeruleum

Rainbow Darter S2 G5

Percina copelandi

Channel Darter S2 G4

Percina lenticula

Freckled Darter S1 G2

Percina macrolepida

Bigscale Logperch S2 G5

Percina aurora

Pearl Darter SH G1 C

Scaphirhynchus platorynchus

Shovelnose Sturgeon S4 G4

Percina suttkusi

Gulf Logperch S2 G5

Etheostoma artesiae

Redspot Darter S3 G5

Macrhybopsis hyostoma

Shoal Chub S3 G5

Notropis winchelli

Clear Chub S3 G5

Anguilla rostrata

American Eel S4 G4

Percina vigil

Saddleback Darter S3 G5

Etheostoma thompsoni

Gumbo Darter S2 GNR

Fundulus jenkinsi

Saltmarsh Topminnow S3 G3

Fundulus pulvereus

Bayou Killifish S4 G5

Adinia xenica

Diamond Killifish S4 G5

Syngnathus affinis

Texas Pipefish SU G1

Syngnathus louisianae

Chain Pipefish S4 GNR

Microphis brachyurus

Opossum Pipefish SU G4G5

Erotelis smaragdus

Emerald Sleeper SU GNR

Gobioides broussoneti

Violet Goby S4 G5

Paralichthys squamilentus

Broad Flounder SU GNR

Eleotris amblyopsis

Large-scaled Spinycheek Sleeper S4 G5

Epinephelus itajara

Goliath Grouper SH G2

Megalops atlanticus

Tarpon S3 G5

Bathygobius soporator

Frillfin Goby S4 GNR

Pristis pectinata

Smalltooth Sawfish SH G1G3

Sphoeroides nephelus

Southern Puffer S5 G5
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Ambystoma tigrinum

Eastern Tiger Salamander S1 G5 Prohibited

Hemidactylium scutatum

Four-toed Salamander S1 G5

Plethodon serratus


Plethodon websteri

Webster's Salamander S1 G3 Prohibited

Plethodon kisatchie

Louisiana Slimy Salamander S1 G3G4Q

Pseudotriton montanus

Gulf Coast Mud Salamander S1 G5 Prohibited

Pseudotriton ruber

Southern Red Salamander S2 G5 Prohibited

Pseudacris ornata

Ornate Chorus Frog SH G5

Pseudacris streckeri

Strecker's Chorus Frog S1 G5

Lithobates areolatus areolatus

Southern Crawfish Frog S1 G4

Rana sevosa

Dusky Gopher Frog SH G1 E

Rana areolata

Crawfish Frog S3? G4

Desmognathus auriculatus

Southern Dusky Salamander S1 G5

Necturus beyeri

Gulf Coast Waterdog S3 G4

Necturus maculosus louisianensis

Red River Mudpuppy S3 G5

Scaphiopus holbrookii

Eastern Spadefoot S3 G5
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Helmitheros vermivorus

Worm-eating Warbler S3B G5

Waterbird Nesting Colony


Pelecanus occidentalis

Brown Pelican S3 G4 E Delisted

Egretta rufescens

Reddish Egret S1 G4

Plegadis falcinellus

Glossy Ibis S2 G5

Platalea ajaja

Roseate Spoonbill S3 G5

Lophodytes cucullatus

Hooded Merganser S2S3B,S4N G5

Pandion haliaetus

Osprey S3 G5

Elanoides forficatus

American Swallow-tailed Kite S1S2B G5

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Bald Eagle S3 G5 E Delisted

Accipiter cooperii

Cooper's Hawk S2B,S3N G5

Aquila chrysaetos

Golden Eagle S1N G5

Caracara cheriway

Crested Caracara S1 G5

Falco peregrinus

Peregrine Falcon S3N G4 T/E

Laterallus jamaicensis

Black Rail S2N, S1B G4

Grus canadensis

Sandhill Crane S2N G5

Grus americana

Whooping Crane SH G1 E

Charadrius alexandrinus

Snowy Plover S1B,S2N G4

Charadrius wilsonia

Wilson's Plover S2B, S1N G5

Charadrius melodus

Piping Plover S2N G3 T/E T

Haematopus palliatus

American Oystercatcher S1 G5

Numenius borealis

Eskimo Curlew SHN GH E

Scolopax minor

American Woodcock S1B, S5N G5

Gelochelidon nilotica

Gull-billed Tern S2 G5

Hydroprogne caspia

Caspian Tern S1S2B,S3N G5

Sternula antillarum athalassos

Interior Least Tern S4BT1 G4T2Q E E

Onychoprion fuscatus

Sooty Tern S1B G5

Columbina passerina

Common Ground-Dove S1B,S2N G5

Athene cunicularia

Burrowing Owl S1S2N G4

Asio flammeus

Short-eared Owl S3N G5

Picoides borealis

Red-cockaded Woodpecker S2 G3 E E

Campephilus principalis

Ivory-billed Woodpecker SX G1 E

Sitta carolinensis

White-breasted Nuthatch S2 G5

Vireo bellii

Bell's Vireo S1B G5

Vireo gilvus

Warbling Vireo S1B G5

Vermivora bachmanii

Bachman's Warbler SH GH E

Dendroica cerulea

Cerulean Warbler S1B G4

Setophaga ruticilla

American Redstart S3B G5

Seiurus motacilla

Louisiana Waterthrush S3S4B G5

Aimophila aestivalis

Bachman's Sparrow S3 G3

Chondestes grammacus

Lark Sparrow S3 G5

Ammodramus savannarum

Grasshopper Sparrow S1B, S3N G5

Ammodramus henslowii

Henslow's Sparrow S3N G4

Tympanuchus cupido attwateri

Attwater's Greater Prairie Chicken SH G4T1 E

Anas fulvigula

Mottled Duck S4 G4

Anas acuta

Northern Pintail S5N G5

Aythya valisineria

Canvasback S4N G5

Aythya americana

Redhead S4N G5

Aythya affinis

Lesser Scaup S5N G5

Colinus virginianus

Northern Bobwhite S3 G5

Mycteria americana

Wood Stork S3N G4

Botaurus lentiginosus

American Bittern S4N G4

Ixobrychus exilis

Least Bittern S5B G5

Elanus leucurus

White-tailed Kite S1B,S1S2N G5

Coturnicops noveboracensis

Yellow Rail S3S4N G4

Rallus longirostris

Clapper Rail S5 G5

Rallus elegans

King Rail S3B,S4N G4

Bartramia longicauda

Upland Sandpiper S4N G5

Numenius americanus

Long-billed Curlew S5N G5

Limosa haemastica

Hudsonian Godwit S3N G4

Limosa fedoa

Marbled Godwit S4N G5

Calidris canutus

Red Knot S2N G4

Calidris alpina

Dunlin S5N G5

Tryngites subruficollis

Buff-breasted Sandpiper S3N G4

Limnodromus griseus

Short-billed Dowitcher S5N G5

Sternula antillarum

Coastal Least Tern S4B G4

Sterna hirundo

Common Tern S1B,S3N G5

Sterna forsteri

Forster's Tern S5 G5

Thalasseus maximus

Royal Tern S5 G5

Thalasseus sandvicensis

Sandwich Tern S4B G5

Rynchops niger

Black Skimmer S3 G5

Geococcyx californianus

Greater Roadrunner S3 G5

Antrostomus carolinensis

Chuck-Will's-Widow S4B G5

Melanerpes erythrocephalus

Red-headed Woodpecker S4 G5

Falco sparverius paulus

Southeastern American Kestrel S3BT2, S5NT2 G5T4

Lanius ludovicianus

Loggerhead Shrike S4 G4

Vireo flavifrons

Yellow-throated Vireo S4B G5

Sitta pusilla

Brown-headed Nuthatch S5 G5

Cistothorus platensis

Sedge Wren S4N G5

Cistothorus palustris

Marsh Wren S4 G5

Hylocichla mustelina

Wood Thrush S4B G5

Anthus spragueii

Sprague's Pipit S2N G4

Parkesia motacilla

Louisiana Waterthrush S3B G5

Protonotaria citrea

Prothonotary Warbler S5B G5

Limnothlypis swainsonii

Swainson's Warbler S4B G4

Geothlypis formosa

Kentucky Warbler S4B G5

Setophaga dominica

Yellow-throated Warbler S4B G5

Spizella pusilla

Field Sparrow S4BS5N G5

Ammodramus leconteii

Le Conte's Sparrow S4N G4

Ammodramus nelsoni

Nelson's Sparrow S5N G5

Ammodramus maritimus

Seaside Sparrow S4 G4

Passerina ciris

Painted Bunting S5B G5

Spiza americana

Dickcissel S4B G5

Euphagus carolinus

Rusty Blackbird S3N G4
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Chelonia mydas

Green Sea Turtle S1N G3 T T

Eretmochelys imbricata

Hawksbill Sea Turtle SNA G3 E E

Lepidochelys kempii

Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle S1B, S3N G1 E E

Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback Sea Turtle SNA G2 E E

Caretta caretta

Loggerhead Sea Turtle S1B, S3N G3 T T

Macrochelys temminckii

Alligator Snapping Turtle S3 G3G4 Restricted Harvest

Graptemys oculifera

Ringed Map Turtle S2 G2 T T

Graptemys gibbonsi

Pascagoula Map Turtle S3 G3G4

Malaclemys terrapin

Diamondback Terrapin S3 G4 Restricted Harvest

Terrapene ornata

Ornate Box Turtle S1 G5 Restricted Harvest

Sternotherus minor

Stripeneck Musk Turtle S1 G5

Gopherus polyphemus

Gopher Tortoise S1 G3 T T

Ophisaurus ventralis

Eastern Glass Lizard S3 G5

Eumeces septentrionalis

Southern Prairie Skink S1 G5

Carphophis vermis

Western Worm Snake S1 G5

Farancia erytrogramma

Rainbow Snake S2 G4

Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata

Mole Kingsnake S1S2 G5T5

Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi

Black Pine Snake S1 G4T2T3 C

Pituophis ruthveni

Louisiana Pine Snake S2 G2Q C

Rhadinaea flavilata

Pine Woods Snake S1 G4

Micrurus fulvius

Harlequin Coral Snake S2 G5

Crotalus adamanteus

Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake S1 G4

Apalone mutica

Smooth Softshell S3 G5

Graptemys ouachitensis ouachitensis

Ouachita Map Turtle S3 G5

Graptemys pearlensis

Pearl Map Turtle S3 G2G3

Deirochelys reticularia miaria

Western Chicken Turtle S2 G5

Ophisaurus attenuatus attenuatus

Western Slender Glass Lizard S3 G5T5

Plestiodon anthracinus

Coal Skink S3 G5

Tantilla coronata

Southeastern Crowned Snake S1 G5

Crotalus horridus

Timber Rattlesnake S3S4 G4

Phrynosoma cornutum

Texas Horned Lizard SX G4G5

Heterodon platyrhinos

Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake S3 G5
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet

Sorex longirostris

Southeastern Shrew S2 G5

Lasionycteris noctivagans

Silver-haired Bat SNA G5

Eptesicus fuscus

Big Brown Bat S2 G5

Myotis septentrionalis

Northern Myotis S1 G4

Chaetodipus hispidus

Hispid Pocket Mouse S2 G5

Reithrodontomys humulis

Eastern Harvest Mouse S3 G5

Canis rufus

Red Wolf SX G1Q

Ursus americanus luteolus

Louisiana Black Bear S3 G5T2 T T

Bassariscus astutus

Ringtail S1 G5

Mustela frenata

Long-tailed Weasel S3 G5

Spilogale putorius

Eastern Spotted Skunk S1 G5

Puma concolor coryi

Florida Panther SH G5T1 E E

Trichechus manatus

Manatee S1N G2 E E

Physeter macrocephalus ( = P. catodon)

Sperm Whale SNA G3G4 E

Balaenoptera borealis

Sei Whale SAN G3 E

Balaenoptera musculus

Blue Whale SAN G3G4 E

Balaenoptera physalus

Finback Whale SAN G3G4 E E

Microtus ochrogaster ludovicianus

Prairie Vole SH G5TX

Myotis austroriparius

Southeastern Myotis S4 G3G4

Ochrotomys nuttalli

Golden Mouse S4 G5

Tursiops truncatus

Bottlenose Dolphin S5 G5

Sciurus niger bachmanii

Bachman’s Fox Squirrel S5T3 G5 (subspecies not listed)

Geomys breviceps sagittatus

Baird's Pocket Gopher S4 G5

Geomys breviceps breviceps

Mer Rouge Pocket Gopher S4T1 G5

Tamias striatus

Eastern Chipmunk S3 G5

Corynorhinus rafinesquii

Rafinesque’s Big Eared Bat S4 G3G4
Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet


sample sample sample E sample

Tracking List and Fact Sheets


Ferns and Fern Allies
Family Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet Image

Asplenium resiliens

Black-stem Spleenwort SX G5

Asplenium trichomanes

Maidenhair Spleenwort SX G5

Blechnum occidentale

Sink-hole Fern SH G5

Ctenitis submarginalis

Hairy Comb Fern S1 G5

Deparia acrostichoides

Silvery Glade Fern S2 G5

Diplazium lonchophyllum

Lance-leaved Glade Fern S1 G3G5

Diplazium pycnocarpon

Glade Fern S2 G5

Dryopteris celsa

Log Fern S1 G4

Dryopteris ludoviciana

Southern Shield Wood-fern S2 G4

Dryopteris x australis

Hybrid SH GNA

Trichomanes petersii

Dwarf Filmy-fern S2 G4G5

Isoetes louisianensis

Louisiana Quillwort S2 G2 E

Lycopodiella cernua var. cernua

Staghorn Clubmoss S2 G5T5

Botrychium jenmanii

Alabama Grape-fern S2 G3G4

Ceratopteris pteridoides

Floating Antler-fern S2 G5?

Cheilanthes alabamensis

Alabama Lipfern SX G4G5

Cheilanthes lanosa

Hairy Lipfern S1 G5

Pellaea atropurpurea

Purple-stem Cliff-brake SX G5

Selaginella arenicola ssp. riddellii

Riddell's Spike Moss S3 G4T4

Selaginella ludoviciana

Louisiana Spikemoss S1 G3G4

Thelypteris interrupta

Willdenow's Fern S1 G5?

Thelypteris noveboracensis

New York Fern S1 G5
Family Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet Image

Ruellia noctiflora

Night-flowering Wild-petunia S1 G2

Amaranthus greggii

Gregg's Amaranth S3 G4?

Tidestromia lanuginosa

Woolly Honeysweet S1 G5

Sanicula marilandica

Maryland's Black Snake-root SH G5

Sium suave

Hemlock Water-parsnip S1S2 G5

Taenidia integerrima

Yellow Pimpernell S2 G5

Thaspium chapmanii

Meadowparsnip S1 GNR

Amsonia ludoviciana

Louisiana Blue Star S3 G3

Ilex amelanchier

Sarvis Holly S2 G4

Ilex myrtifolia

Myrtle Holly S2 G5?

Panax quinquefolius

American Ginseng S1 G3G4

Asarum canadense

Canada Wild-ginger S1 G5

Asclepias hirtella

Green Milkweed S1 G5

Asclepias humistrata

Pine-woods Milkweed SH G4G5

Asclepias incarnata

Swamp Milkweed S2 G5

Asclepias michauxii

Michaux Milkweed S2 G4G5

Asclepias purpurascens

Purple Milkweed S1 G5?

Asclepias rubra

Red Milkweed S3 G4G5

Asclepias stenophylla

Narrow-leaved Milkweed S1 G4G5

Matelea cynanchoides

Prairie Milkvine S1 G4G5

Antennaria solitaria

Single-head Pussytoes S2 G5

Boltonia apalachicolensis

Apalachicola Doll's-daisy S1 G2Q

Chaetopappa asteroides

Chaetopappa S1 G5

Chrysopsis gossypina ssp. hyssopifolia

A Golden Aster S1 G5T3T5

Cirsium engelmannii

Cirsium Terraenigrae SU G4

Cirsium lecontei

Lecont's Thistle S2 G2G3

Cirsium muticum

Swamp Thistle SU G5

Coreopsis intermedia

Golden Wave Tickseed S2 G3

Coreopsis nudata

Georgia Tickseed S2 G3?

Coreopsis palmata

Stiff Tickseed S2 G5

Echinacea purpurea

Purple Coneflower S2 G4

Eupatorium purpureum

Thoroughwort S1 G5

Evax verna

Cotton-rose S1 G5

Grindelia lanceolata var. lanceolata

Gum Weed S1 G3G5T3T5

Helenium brevifolium

Shortleaf Sneezeweed S1 G3G4

Helenium campestre

Old Field Sneezeweed S1 G4

Helianthus decapetalus

Thin-leaf Sunflower SH G5

Helianthus silphioides

Rosinweed Sunflower S3S4 G3G4

Hieracium longipilum

Hawkweed S1 G4G5

Liatris punctata

Gayfeather S1 G5

Liatris tenuis

Slender Gay-feather S1 G3

Lindheimera texana

Texas Yellow-star S1 G5

Marshallia caespitosa var. signata

Barbara's Buttons S1 G4T4

Marshallia trinervia

Broadleaf Barbara's-buttons S1 G3

Melanthera nivea

Snow Melanthera S2 G5

Palafoxia callosa

A Palafoxia SH G4G5

Palafoxia texana var. ambigua

Texas Palafoxia S1 G3G5TNR

Prenanthes barbata

Barbed Rattlesnake-root S2 G3

Pterocaulon virgatum

Wand Blackroot S2 G5

Ratibida peduncularis

Mexican Hat S2S3 G4G5

Rudbeckia missouriensis

Missouri Coneflower S2 G4G5

Rudbeckia scabrifolia

Sabine Coneflower S3 G3

Rudbeckia triloba

Three-lobed Coneflower S3 G5

Sclerolepis uniflora

Pink Bob Button S1 G4

Senecio ampullaceus

Texas ragwort S1S2 G4

Sericocarpus linifolius

Narrowleaf Aster S2 G5

Silphium perfoliatum

Carpenter's Square S1? G5

Solidago flexicaulis

Goldenrod S1 G5

Solidago juncea

Goldenrod S1 G5

Tetragonotheca ludoviciana

Louisiana Square-head S3 G4

Thelesperma flavodiscum

Thread-leaved Green-thread S1 G4

Corylus americana

American Hazelnut S1 G5

Heliotropium tenellum

Slender Heliotrope S2 G5

Lithospermum incisum

Narrow-leaved Puccoon S1 G5

Arabis canadensis

Sicklepod S1 G5

Draba cuneifolia

Wedge-leaf Whitlow-grass S1 G5

Lesquerella gracilis

Spreading Bladderpod SH G5

Streptanthus hyacinthoides

Smooth Twistflower S2 G4

Pachysandra procumbens

Allegheny-spurge S2 G4G5

Campanulastrum americanum

Tall Bellflower S1 G5

Lobelia elongata

Elongated Lobelia S1? G4G5

Lobelia flaccidifolia

Coastal Plain Lobelia S2? G5

Polanisia erosa

Large Clammy-weed S2 G5

Triosteum angustifolium

Yellowleaf Tinker's-weed S2 G5

Triosteum perfoliatum

Perfoliate Tinker's-weed SH G5

Geocarpon minimum

Earth-fruit S2 G2 T

Loeflingia squarrosa

Spreading Pygmyleaf S1 G5

Minuartia drummondii

Drummond's stitchwort S2 G5

Minuartia muriculata

Minuartia S3 G4

Paronychia canadensis

Forked Nailwort SH G5

Paronychia drummondii

Drummond Nailwort S2 G4G5

Paronychia erecta var. corymbosa

Squareflower S1 G3G4T2T4

Silene stellata

Starry Campion S2 G5

Silene subciliata

Scarlet Catchfly S2 G3

Silene virginica

Fire Pink S2 G5

Stellaria alsine

Chickweed SH G5

Stipulicida setacea

Pineland Scaly-pink S1 G4G5

Celastrus scandens

Climbing Bittersweet S1 G5

Euonymus atropurpureus

Wahoo S1 G5

Licania michauxii

Gopher-apple SH G4G5

Helianthemum rosmarinifolium

Rosemary Rockrose S2 G4

Lechea minor

Thyme-leaf Pinweed S1? G5

Lechea pulchella

A Pinweed S1S2 G5

Lechea racemulosa

Pinweed SU G5

Lechea san-sabeana

San Saba Pinweed S1 G4

Cliftonia monophylla

Buckwheat-tree S1 G4G5

Drosera intermedia

Spoon-leaved Sundew S2 G5

Drosera tracyi

Tracy's Sundew SH G3G4

Kalmia latifolia

Mountain Laurel S3 G5

Lyonia mariana

Stagger-bush S1 G5

Chamaesyce bombensis

Sand Dune Spurge S1 G4G5

Croton argyranthemus

Silver Croton S2 G5

Euphorbia discoidalis

Summer Spurge S1 GNR

Amorpha nitens

Shining Indigo-bush SH G3?

Amorpha paniculata

Panicled Indigo-bush S2 G2G3

Astragalus crassicarpus var. trichocalyx

Ground-plum S1 G5T5?

Astragalus nuttallianus

A Milk-vetch S2S3 G5

Astragalus soxmaniorum

Soxman Milk-vetch S2 G3

Cladrastis kentukea

Yellow-wood S1 G4

Dalea compacta var. pubescens

Compact Prairie-clover S1 G5T5

Dalea emarginata

Wedge-leaf Prairie-clover S2 G5

Dalea phleoides

Slim-spike Prairie-clover S1 G4

Dalea pinnata

Summer-fairwell S1 G5

Dalea villosa var. grisea

Prarie-clover S2 G5T4

Indigofera miniata

Coast Indigo S1 G5

Lotus unifoliolatus

Prairie trefoil S2 G5

Lupinus villosus

Lady Lupine S2 G5

Pediomelum digitatum

Palm-leaf Scarf-pea S1 G5

Pediomelum hypogaeum var. subulatum

Awl-shaped Scarf-pea S2 G5T4

Pediomelum rhombifolium

Roundleaf Scarf-pea S2S3 G5

Tephrosia hispidula

Hoary Pea S2? G4G5

Zornia bracteata

Viperina S2 G5?

Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis

Ozark Chinquapin S1 G5T3

Quercus arkansana

Arkansas Oak S2 G3

Quercus coccinea

Scarlet Oak S2S3 G5

Quercus imbricaria

Shingle Oak S1 G5

Quercus laevis

Turkey Oak S1 G5

Quercus macrocarpa

Burr Oak S1 G5

Quercus oglethorpensis

Oglethorpe's Oak S1 G3

Quercus rubra

Red Oak S1S3 G5

Quercus sinuata var. sinuata

Durand's White Oak S1 G5T5

Bartonia paniculata ssp. texana (= B. texana)

Texas Screwstem S1 G2

Eustoma russellianum

Prairie-gentian SH G5

Frasera caroliniensis

Carolina Gentian SH G5

Sabatia arenicola

Sand Rose-gentian S1 G3G5

Geranium maculatum

Wild Crane's-bill S1 G5

Scaevola plumieri

Scaevola SH G5

Ribes curvatum

Granite Gooseberry S2 G4

Phacelia glabra

Smooth Phacelia S2 G4

Phacelia strictiflora

Phacelia S2 G5

Carya pallida

Sand Hickory S2 G5

Collinsonia canadensis

Richweed S2? G5

Collinsonia serotina

Southern horse-balm S1 G3G4

Monarda lindheimeri

Lindheimer's Bee-balm S1 G4

Physostegia correllii

Correll's False Dragon-head S1 G2

Physostegia longisepala

Long-sepaled False Dragon-head S2S3 G2G3

Scutellaria cardiophylla

Heart-leaved Skullcap S2 G4?

Scutellaria thieretii

Thieret's Skullcap S2 G2Q

Lindera melissifolia

Pondberry SH G2 E

Lindera subcoriacea

Bog Spicebush S1 G2

Litsea aestivalis

Pondspice SR G3

Pinguicula lutea

Yellow Butterwort S2 G4G5

Floerkea proserpinacoides

False Mermaid-weed SH G5

Linum macrocarpum

Gig Fruit Flax S1 G2

Linum sulcatum

Grooved Flax S1 G5

Didiplis diandra

Water-purslane S2? G5

Magnolia pyramidata

Pyramid Magnolia S2 G4

Callirhoe alcaeoides

Clustered Poppy-mallow S1 G5?

Callirhoe digitata

Wine Cup S1 GNR

Callirhoe involucrata

Purple Poppymallow SH GNR

Sida elliottii

Elliott Sida SH G4G5

Nymphoides cordata

Floating-heart SH G5

Monotropa hypopithys

American Pinesap S2 G5

Myrica inodora

Odorless Bayberry S2 G4

Mirabilis albida

Pale Umbrella-wort S2 G5

Nymphaea elegans

Blue Water Lily S2S4 G4?

Forestiera ligustrina

Upland Swamp Privet S3 G4G5

Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis

Enchanter's Nightshade S2 G5T5

Ludwigia alata

Winged Primrose Willow S1 G3G5

Ludwigia microcarpa

Small-fruited Water-willow S1 G5

Ludwigia sphaerocarpa

Grapefruit Primrosewilow S2 G5

Oenothera pilosella ssp. sessilis

Meadow Evening Primrose S1? G5T2Q

Oenothera rhombipetala

Four-point Evening Primrose S1? G4G5

Orobanche uniflora

Broomrape S1 G5

Sanguinaria canadensis

Bloodroot S2 G5

Plantago patagonica

Woolly Plantain S2 G5

Podostemum ceratophyllum

Riverweed S1 G5

Phlox pilosa ssp. ozarkana

Downy Phlox S2? G5TNR

Polygala boykinii

Boykin's milkwort S1 G4

Polygala chapmanii

Chapman's milkwort S1 G3G5

Polygala crenata

Scalloped Milkwort S2 G4?

Polygala hookeri

Hooker Milkwort S1 G3

Eriogonum longifolium

Long-leaved Wild-buckwheat S2 G4

Eriogonum multiflorum

Many-flowered Wild-buckwheat S3 G5

Polygonella americana

Southern Jointweed S2 G5

Polygonella polygama

Jointweed S2 G4

Talinum parviflorum

Small-flowered Flame-flower S3 G5

Talinum rugospermum

Prairie Flameflower S1 G3G4

Dodecatheon meadia

Common Shooting-star S2 G5

Samolus ebracteatus

Brookweed S1 G4G5

Actaea pachypoda

White Baneberry S2 G5

Anemone berlandieri

Ten Petal Thimbleweed S2 G4?

Anemone virginiana

Virginia Anemone S1 G5

Clematis glaucophylla

White-leaved Leather-flower S1 G4?

Ranunculus flabellaris

Yellow Water-crowfoot S1 G5

Thalictrum revolutum

Windflower S1 G5

Xanthorhiza simplicissima

Yellowroot S1 G5

Ceanothus herbaceus

Prairie Redroot S1 G5

Rhamnus lanceolata

Lance-leaved Buckthorn SH G5

Agrimonia incisa

Incised Grooveburr S1 G3

Crataegus triflora

Three-flowered Hawthorn S1 G2

Fragaria virginiana

Virginia Strawberry S1 G5

Prunus gracilis

Oklahoma Plum S2 G4G5

Galium virgatum

Southwest Bedstraw S2 G5

Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa

Purple Bluet S2 G5T5

Zanthoxylum americanum

Northern Prickley Ash S1 G5

Salix caroliniana

Coastal Plain Willow S1 G5

Salix humilis var. tristis

Dwarf Gray Willow S2 G5T4T5

Sideroxylon reclinatum

Florida bully S1 G4G5

Sarracenia psittacina

Parrot Pitcherplant S3 G4

Sarracenia purpurea

Pitcher Plant SH G5

Heuchera americana

American Alumroot S2 G5

Parnassia grandifolia

Large Leaved Grass-of-Parnassus S1 G3

Saxifraga texana

Texas saxifrage S1 G4

Saxifraga virginiensis

Virginia Saxifrage SH G5

Schisandra glabra

Scarlet Woodbine S3 G3

Agalinis aphylla

Coastal Plain False-foxglove S1 G3G4

Agalinis caddoensis

Caddo Parish False-foxglove SH GH

Agalinis filicaulis

Purple False-foxglove S2 G3G4

Agalinis linifolia

Flax-leaf False-foxglove S2 G4?

Agalinis skinneriana

Skinner's purple false foxglove S1S2 GNR

Castilleja coccinea

Scarlet Indian Paintbrush SH G5

Dasistoma macrophylla

Dasistoma SH G4

Gratiola flava

Flame Hedgehyssop S1 G4

Gratiola floridana

Florida Hedgehyssop SH G4

Gratiola ramosa

Hedgehyssop S1S2 G4G5

Macranthera flammea

Flame Flower S2 G3

Mimulus ringens

Square-stemmed Monkey-flower S2 G5

Penstemon murrayanus

Cupleaf Beardtongue S1 G4

Schwalbea americana

American Chaffseed S1 G2 E

Seymeria pectinata

Comb Syemeria SH G4G5

Veronicastrum virginicum

Culver's-root SH G4

Physalis angustifolia

Coastal Ground Cherry S1? G3G4

Physalis carpenteri

Carpenter's Ground-cherry S1 G3

Solanum dimidiatum

Western Horse-nettle S2S3 G5

Staphylea trifolia

American bladdernut SH G5

Stewartia malacodendron

Silky Camellia S2S3 G4

Dirca palustris

Eastern Leatherwood S1 G4

Viola pubescens

Downy Yellow Violet S1 G5
Family Scientific Name Common Name State Rank Global Rank State Status Federal Status Fact Sheet Image

Echinodorus tenellus

Dwarf Burhead SH G5?

Serenoa repens

Saw Palmetto S1 G4G5

Burmannia biflora

Northern Burmannia S3 G4G5

Canna flaccida

Golden Canna S4? G4?

Canna glauca

Maraca Amarilla S2? G5?

Tradescantia subaspera

Broad-leaved Spiderwort S2 G5

Cymodocea filiformis

Manatee-grass SU G4

Halodule beaudettei

Piedmont Halodule S1S2 G5

Carex arkansana

Arkansas sedge S1 G4

Carex decomposita

Cypress-knee Sedge S3 G3

Carex meadii

Mead's Sedge S3 G4G5

Carex microdonta

Little Tooth Sedge S3 G4

Carex stricta

Tussock Sedge SH G5

Carex venusta

Caric Sedge S1 G4

Cyperus cephalanthus

Flatsedge S2 G3?Q

Cyperus distinctus

Marshland Flatsedge S1 G4

Cyperus grayoides

An Umbrella-sedge S3 G3

Dulichium arundinaceum

Three-way Sedge S2 G5

Eleocharis elongata

Slim Spike-rush S3 G5?

Eleocharis fallax

Creeping Spike-rush S1? G4G5

Eleocharis geniculata

Canada Spikesedge S1? G5

Eleocharis melanocarpa

black-fruited spikesedge S1 G4

Eleocharis radicans

Rooted Spike-rush S1? G5

Eleocharis tricostata

Three-angle Spikerush S1? G4

Eleocharis wolfii

Wolf Spikerush S3 G3G4

Fuirena scirpoidea

Southern Umbrella-sedge S1 G5

Fuirena simplex var. aristulata

Western Umbrella Sedge S1 G5T4

Lipocarpha micrantha

Small Flower Hemicarpha SH G5

Rhynchospora capitellata

Brownish Beakrush S1 G5

Rhynchospora chapmanii

Chapman Beakrush S3 G4

Rhynchospora ciliaris

Ciliate Beakrush S3 G4

Rhynchospora compressa

Flat-fruit Beakrush S3 G4

Rhynchospora debilis

Savannah Beakrush S3 G4?

Rhynchospora decurrens

Swamp-forest Beakrush SH G3G4

Rhynchospora divergens

Spreading Beakrush S1 G4

Rhynchospora globularis var. pinetorum

Small's Beaksedge S1 G5?T3?

Rhynchospora macra

Large Beakrush S3 G3

Rhynchospora microcarpa

Southern Beaksedge S3 G5

Rhynchospora miliacea

Millet Beakrush S2 G5

Rhynchospora stenophylla

Coastal Plain Beakrush S1 G4

Rhynchospora tracyi

Beak-rush SH G4

Schoenoplectus etuberculatus

Bulrush S1 G3G4

Scleria verticillata

Low Nutrush S1 G5

Lachnocaulon digynum

Pineland Bog Button S3 G3

Halophila engelmannii

Gulf Halophila S1 G3G5

Thalassia testudina

Turtle-grass S2? G4G5

Iris nelsonii

Abbeville Iris S1 GNR

Nemastylis geminiflora

Prairie Pleat-leaf S2S3 G4

Luzula acuminata var. carolinae

Southern Hairy Woodrush S1 G5T4T5

Triglochin striata

Arrow-grass S1 G5

Amianthium muscitoxicum

Fly-poison SH G4G5

Camassia scilloides

Atlantic Camas S3 G4G5

Chamaelirium luteum

Fairy Wand S2S3 G5

Cooperia drummondii

Evening Rainlily S2 G5

Erythronium albidum

White Trout-lily S2 G5

Lilium catesbaei

Southern Red Lily S1 G4

Lilium superbum

Turk's Cap Lily S1 G5

Lophiola aurea

Golden Crest S2S3 G4

Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum

False Soloman's-seal SH G5T5

Medeola virginiana

Indian Cucumber-root S1 G5

Schoenolirion wrightii

Texas Sunnybell S2 G3

Tofieldia racemosa

Coastal False-asphodel S2S3 G5

Trillium recurvatum

Reflexed Trillium S2 G5

Trillium texanum

Texas Trillium S1 G2G3Q

Uvularia sessilifolia

Sessile-leaved Bellwort S2 G5

Zigadenus densus

Black Snakeroot S2 G5

Zigadenus leimanthoides

Death Camus S1 G4Q

Zigadenus nuttallii

Nuttall Death Camas S1 G5